History

Preface to the thirtieth anniversary edition of The Heritage We Defend

By David North, 21 June 2018

We are posting the new preface written by David North for the soon to be released thirtieth anniversary edition of The Heritage We Defend: A Contribution to the History of the Fourth International.

Fifty years of the Socialist Equality Party of Sri Lanka

Arm the working class with the program of socialist internationalism and with revolutionary leadership!

By the Socialist Equality Party (Sri Lanka), 16 June 2018

The fulcrum of the 50-year struggle of the RCL/SEP has been the fight for the political independence of the working class and the program of permanent revolution.

This week in history: June 11-17

11 June 2018

25 years ago: US military slaughters Somali civiliansOn June 11, 1993, six months after US troops landed in Somalia for the supposed purpose of feeding starving people, US warplanes reduced large parts of the capital city, Mogadishu, to rubble, while United Nations troops carried out house-to-house raids and cold-blooded massacres.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 8—The centrist line of the OCI (4)

By Peter Schwarz, 6 June 2018

Fifty years ago, in May–June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 7—The centrist line of the OCI (3)

By Peter Schwarz, 5 June 2018

Fifty years ago, in May-June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 6—The centrist line of the OCI (2)

By Peter Schwarz, 4 June 2018

Fifty years ago, in May–June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 5—The centrist line of the OCI (1)

By Peter Schwarz, 2 June 2018

Fifty years ago, in May-June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 4—How Alain Krivine’s JCR covered for the betrayals of Stalinism (2)

By Peter Schwarz, 1 June 2018

Fifty years ago, in May–June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 3—How Alain Krivine’s JCR covered for the betrayals of Stalinism

By Peter Schwarz, 31 May 2018

Fifty years ago, in May–June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 2—The betrayal of the PCF and CGT

By Peter Schwarz, 30 May 2018

Fifty years ago, in May–June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

Germany: Twenty-five years since the arson attack in Solingen

By Marianne Arens and Elisabeth Zimmermann, 30 May 2018

On Saturday, May 29, 1993, five members of the Gença family were killed in an arson attack carried out by far-right extremists in the town of Solingen.

1968: The general strike and the student revolt in France

Part 1—A revolutionary situation develops

By Peter Schwarz, 29 May 2018

Fifty years ago, in May-June 1968, a general strike brought France to the brink of proletarian revolution. This eight-part series describes the events and draws the political lessons for today.

Capitalist restoration in Russia: A balance sheet

Part 4: The Kuzbass today

By Clara Weiss, 4 May 2018

This series reviews the lessons of the Soviet miners’ strike of 1989 and capitalist restoration in Russia.

Capitalist restoration in Russia: A balance sheet

Part 3

By Clara Weiss, 3 May 2018

This series reviews the lessons of the Soviet miners’ strike of 1989 and capitalist restoration in Russia.

Capitalist restoration in Russia: A balance sheet

Part 2: What happened to the miners’ strike

By Clara Weiss, 2 May 2018

This series reviews the lessons of the Soviet miners’ strike of 1989 and capitalist restoration in Russia.

Capitalist restoration in Russia: A balance sheet

Part 1

By Clara Weiss, 1 May 2018

This series reviews the lessons of the Soviet miners’ strike of 1989 and capitalist restoration in Russia.

This week in history: April 30-May 6

30 April 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

NY Times, Mark Rudd on anniversary of Columbia U sit-in: Socialist revolution is a “fantasy”

By Patrick Martin, 26 April 2018

Mark Rudd, the most prominent leader of the student protests at Columbia University in 1968, has taken to the pages of the leading capitalist newspaper to deny the possibility of revolution.

Lenin, Trotsky and the Marxism of the October Revolution

By David North, 19 March 2018

David North, chairperson of the International Editorial Board of the World Socialist Web Site and of the Socialist Equality Party (US), delivered this lecture at the University of Leipzig on March 16.

This week in history: March 19-25

19 March 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

This week in history: March 12-18

12 March 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

This week in history: March 5-11

5 March 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

Arts editor David Walsh speaks on the centenary of the October Revolution

What the Russian Revolution meant for modern art and culture

By David Walsh, 28 February 2018

This talk was given in Chicago and in Ann Arbor and Kalamazoo, Michigan, in late 2017 and early 2018 to mark the centenary of the October Revolution.

This week in history: February 19-25

19 February 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

PBS’s The Gilded Age: Removing the working class from the stage of history

By Tom Mackaman, 15 February 2018

PBS aired the documentary as part of its American Experience series on February 6.

This week in history: February 12-18

12 February 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

A conversation with film historian Max Alvarez: How the #MeToo campaign echoes the McCarthyite witch hunt of the 1940s and 1950s

“The climate is chillingly similar in terms of the massive capitulation and conformity”

By David Walsh, 8 February 2018

It is “Scoundrel Time” again in Hollywood, complete with denunciations, anonymous informants, humiliating “confessions,” trial by media and the banning of prominent performers.

Nothing learned from Auschwitz

By Johannes Stern, 6 February 2018

Just a cursory glance at the politicians assembled in the German parliament to commemorate the 73rd anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz makes clear the same ruling class that made Hitler chancellor 85 years ago is returning to its infamous traditions.

An interview with David North

Socialism or Barbarism: Reflections on Global Disorder

6 February 2018

In October 2017, David North delivered a lecture on the centenary of the October Revolution at St. Andrews College in Scotland. Prior to the lecture, he was interviewed by Adam Stromme, the editor in chief of the St Andrews Economist, the official publication of the St Andrews Economics Society.

This week in history:

5 February 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

Marshall and #MeToo: A 77-year-old civil rights fight exposes the reactionary character of the sexual misconduct witch-hunt

By Fred Mazelis, 1 February 2018

The 1941 case, in which a black man was acquitted of rape charges, poses awkward questions for those who dismiss due process in their campaign against sexual harassment, both real and alleged.

Fifty years since the Tet Offensive

By Patrick Martin, 31 January 2018

The military assault marked a turning point in the Vietnam War, demonstrating the enduring power of the popular revolutionary struggle and crippling the Johnson administration.

This week in history: January 29-February 4

29 January 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

This week in history: January 22-28

22 January 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

This week in history: January 15-21

15 January 2018

This Week in History provides brief synopses of important historical events whose anniversaries fall this week.

Diego Rivera in the Soviet Union: An exhibition in Mexico City

By Alex González, 12 January 2018

The current show in Mexico City focuses on Rivera’s two visits to the USSR in 1927-28 and in 1955-56. It contains many remarkable items.

Final reflections on the centennial year of the October Revolution

By David North, 30 December 2017

The commemoration of the centenary of the October Revolution reflected the political interests and outlooks of different class forces.

How former Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen erected a state within a state in post-war Germany

By Wolfgang Weber, 27 December 2017

Over 100,000 pages of documents relating to the post-World War II head of the German Federal Intelligence Service and ex-Nazi official Reinhard Gehlen have been leaked to the Süddeutsche Zeitung.

This week in the Russian Revolution

December 18-24: Peace negotiations begin at Brest-Litovsk

18 December 2017

Trotsky later writes, “The circumstances of history willed that the delegates of the most revolutionary regime ever known to humanity should sit at the same diplomatic table with the representatives of the most reactionary caste among all the ruling classes.”

Ron Chernow’s Grant: An able and compelling new biography

By Andre Damon, 15 December 2017

Chernow capably weaves together an account of the life of the Civil War general, president and memoirist.

Cancellation of exhibition about Jewish art collector in Germany raises issue of Nazi-confiscated art

By Sibylle Fuchs, 13 December 2017

Düsseldorf art gallery owner Max Stern’s art collection was auctioned under pressure from the Hitler regime in the 1930s and has remained largely unseen ever since.

This week in the Russian Revolution

December 11-17: White forces capture Rostov

11 December 2017

As forces commanded by the counterrevolutionary General Kaledin occupy Rostov, a major industrial center in southern Russia, conflict continues to rage in the Bolshevik leadership over the question of the Constituent Assembly.

Russian federal investigators review anti-Semitic conspiracy theory about murder of the Tsarist family

By Clara Weiss, 7 December 2017

An investigation, opened in 2015, into the killing of the Tsarist family at the behest of Soviet government in 1918, is considering a fascistic and anti-Semitic conspiracy theory which presents the execution as a “ritual killing.”

This week in the Russian Revolution

December 4-10: Guns fall silent on the Eastern Front

4 December 2017

Soviet Russia and the Central Powers agree to a 10-day truce, subsequently extended to 28 days. “We have started a resolute struggle against the war brought on by the clash of robbers over their spoils,” Lenin declares in a speech December 5.

This week in the Russian Revolution

November 27-December 3: Soviet government steps up call for end to war

27 November 2017

While the world war drags on and most warring governments stubbornly ignore the Bolsheviks’ call for peace, the new government of Soviet Russia issues an appeal to “the peoples of the belligerent governments” to put an end to the imperialist slaughter.

Russian television’s Trotsky serial: A degraded spectacle of historical falsification and anti-Semitism

By Fred Williams and David North, 25 November 2017

The eight-part serial is an exhibition of the political, intellectual and cultural depravity of all those involved in its production.

Leaders of the Russian Revolution

Nikolai Muralov (1877-1937)

Part Two

By Clara Weiss, 22 November 2017

As part of the celebration of the centenary of the October Revolution in 1917, the World Socialist Web Site is publishing a series of profiles of leaders of the Russian Revolution.

Leaders of the Russian Revolution

Nikolai Muralov (1877-1937)

Part One: Early years through the Civil War

By Clara Weiss, 21 November 2017

As part of the celebration of the centenary of the October Revolution in 1917, the World Socialist Web Site is publishing a series of profiles of leaders of the Russian Revolution.

Large turnout for Ann Arbor, Michigan meeting on centenary of the Russian Revolution

By our reporters, 11 November 2017

Speaking exactly 100 years and one day after the working class seized power in Russia, David North reviewed the global impact of the October Revolution, its origins and its political significance.

Sri Lankan SEP and IYSSE commemorate Russian Revolution at Peradeniya University

By our correspondents, 11 November 2017

SEP/IYSSE members campaigned extensively at the university and in neighbouring areas prior to the meeting provoking animated discussions on the political lessons of the October Revolution.

Documents of the Russian Revolution

Proclamation on the Assumption of Soviet Power

By the Second-All Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies, 8 November 2017

One hundred years ago today, the Proclamation on the Assumption of Soviet Power announced the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of a new government.

Documents of the Russian Revolution

Decree on Land

By the Second-All Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ and Peasants’ Deputies, 8 November 2017

The Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies abolished landed proprietorship without compensation.

100 years since the Balfour Declaration

Part two

By Jean Shaoul, 8 November 2017

This is the conclusion of a two-part article on the Balfour Declaration that was to lead to the establishment of the state of Israel in Palestine.

On the Centenary of the October Revolution

By David North, 7 November 2017

The October Revolution ranks among the greatest and most progressive events in world history.

Documents of the Russian Revolution

To the Citizens of Russia!

By the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet, 7 November 2017

On the hundredth anniversary of the October Revolution we are publishing the proclamation issued on November 7 (October 25, O.S.), 1917 by the Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet.

100 years since the Balfour Declaration

Part one

By Jean Shaoul, 7 November 2017

This is the first of a two-part article on the Balfour Declaration that was to lead to the establishment of the state of Israel in Palestine.

This week in the Russian Revolution

November 6-12: Bolsheviks come to power in Petrograd

6 November 2017

The Congress of Soviets opens with the Bolsheviks firmly in control of Petrograd. The new government formed by the Bolsheviks swiftly passes sweeping decrees on peace, land, education, and the eight-hour day.

Lessons of October: The political crisis within the Bolshevik Party on the eve of the seizure of power

By Chris Marsden, 3 November 2017

We are publishing here the text of a lecture delivered on Saturday, October 28 by Chris Marsden, national secretary of the Socialist Equality Party (UK). The audio for the lecture is embedded in the text.

Documents of the Russian Revolution

The Art of Insurrection

By Leon Trotsky, 1 November 2017

We are publishing here “The Art of Insurrection,” the sixth chapter in the third volume of Trotsky’s History of the Russian Revolution in the translation by Max Eastman.

Revoliutsiia! Demonstratsiia! Soviet Art Put to the Test at the Art Institute of Chicago—an introductory comment

Russian Revolutionary art exhibition opened October 29

By Jeff Lusanne and David Walsh, 31 October 2017

Soviet Art Put to the Test offers notable presentation and recreations of creative work in the 1920s-1930s, yet fails to explain the context that is essential to understanding the work.

On the eve of revolution: The Bolshevik Party, factory committees, and the mass movement of the working class

By Tom Carter, 27 October 2017

We are publishing here the text of a lecture delivered Saturday, October 21, by Tom Carter, a member of the National Committee of the Socialist Equality Party (US).

Documents show US participation in 1965-66 massacres in Indonesia

By Mike Head, 25 October 2017

Up to one million workers, peasants and supporters of the Indonesian Communist Party were murdered, in one of the greatest imperialist crimes of the 20th century.

Tsar to Lenin screens to sold out audiences in London and Manchester

By our reporters, 25 October 2017

The documentary was shown on October 14 at HOME, Manchester’s centre for international contemporary art, theatre and film, and at the Barbican Centre in London on October 22.

Thomas Mackaman’s New Immigrants and the Radicalization of American Labor, 1914-1924

Immigration and socialist strategy in America, past and present

By Eric London, 24 October 2017

Thomas Mackaman’s New Immigrants and the Radicalization of American Labor, 1914-1924 is an essential contribution not only to labor history, but also toward the development of a strategy of social revolution today.

Australian Senate formally denounces commemorations of the Russian Revolution

By Nick Beams, 23 October 2017

A resolution introduced by right-wing Senator Cory Bernardi underscores the fear in ruling circles of the shift to the left among wide layers of the world’s population, especially young people.

David North delivers address on Russian Revolution at University of St Andrews, Scotland

By our reporter, 21 October 2017

The audience listened attentively to a wide-ranging presentation lasting more than 80 minutes, which was welcomed with warm applause.

The Canadian split from the UAW—Lessons for today

By Carl Bronski, 20 October 2017

The defeat of the CAMI strike attests to the failure of the nationalist strategy that Unifor and its predecessor, the Canadian Auto Workers (CAW) union, have pursued since splitting from the United Auto Workers in 1985.

Exhibition at American Jewish Historical Society in New York

“1917—How One Year Changed the World”

By Fred Mazelis, 20 October 2017

The displays consider the Russian Revolution, US entry into World War I and the Balfour Declaration’s support for a Zionist homeland in Palestine.

Thirty years since Wall Street’s “Black Monday”

By Nick Beams, 19 October 2017

Thirty years ago today, on October 19, 1987, the New York Stock Exchange experienced what remains its largest one-day fall in history.

From the July Days to the Kornilov coup: Lenin’s The State and Revolution

By Barry Grey, 17 October 2017

We are publishing here the text of a lecture delivered Saturday, October 14, by Barry Grey, the US national editor of the World Socialist Web Site. Watch the lecture online.

Right-wing Zionist campaign against new director of Center for Jewish History in New York City

By Fred Mazelis, 16 October 2017

The cancellation of two programs by the American Jewish Historical Society is in response to a broader effort to derail the appointment of David Myers to head the CJH.

Leaders of the Russian Revolution

Leon Trotsky on Yakov Sverdlov (March 1925)

By Leon Trotsky, 5 October 2017

As part of the commemoration of the centenary of the October Revolution in 1917, we are publishing here a portrait written by Leon Trotsky of Yakov Sverdlov, the chief organizer of the Bolshevik Party in 1917 and first president of the Soviet Republic.

The contradictions of Ken Burns and Lynn Novick’s The Vietnam War

By Patrick Martin, 2 October 2017

The 18-hour documentary series on PBS combines gripping images of the US war, an exposure of the lies and crimes of the Johnson and Nixon administrations, and a narrative that seems intended to block any serious understanding of American imperialism.

This week in the Russian Revolution

October 2 - 8: Trotsky elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet

2 October 2017

The election of Leon Trotsky to the most important post in revolutionary Russia epitomizes the surging strength of the Bolsheviks. However, the immense popular shift in favor of the Bolsheviks coincides with a sharp crisis in the party leadership.

David North delivers address on Russian Revolution to large audience at Northern Virginia Community College

By our reporters, 29 September 2017

Over 40 students and young workers attended the event despite the fact that the military-intelligence apparatus exerts a strong influence on the campus.

This week in the Russian Revolution

September 25 – October 1: Lenin urges Bolshevik leaders to prepare for the seizure of power

25 September 2017

Now that the Bolsheviks have obtained majorities in the Moscow and Petrograd soviets, Lenin launches a campaign to orient the party for a planned insurrection.

The 150th anniversary of the publication of Capital

By Nick Beams, 18 September 2017

September 14 was the 150th anniversary of the publication of the first volume of Capital by Karl Marx. It marked a turning point in mankind’s intellectual and historical development.

This week in the Russian Revolution

September 18 – 24: Bolsheviks obtain majorities in Moscow and Petrograd soviets

18 September 2017

Following the Kornilov affair, support for the Bolsheviks surges, and they win control of the Moscow and Petrograd soviets, followed one by one by provincial soviets. The war rages on, and mass hunger and deprivation fuel working-class rebellions around the world.

This week in the Russian Revolution

September 11-17: After the Kornilov Affair—Kerensky attempts to form dictatorial regime, Trotsky released from prison

11 September 2017

Following the defeat of the Kornilov coup, Kerensky attempts to form a new government, declaring himself the commander-in-chief of the army and announcing the formation of a dictatorial regime consisting of a five-member “Directory.”

This week in the Russian Revolution

September 4 – 10: The Kornilov affair

4 September 2017

Confronted with the danger of a full-blooded counterrevolutionary dictatorship and mass repression from General Kornilov, the Soviets are compelled to appeal to the working class to defend the city.

Leaders of the Russian Revolution: Ivar Tenisovich Smilga (1892-1937)

Part two

By Clara Weiss, 1 September 2017

The is the second part of a two-part article on Ivar Tenisovich Smilga, a leading figure in the October Revolution and the Red Army who worked closely with Lenin and then with Trotsky as a member of the anti-Stalinist Left Opposition. The first part was posted on August 31.

Leaders of the Russian Revolution: Ivar Tenisovich Smilga (1892-1937)

Part one

By Clara Weiss, 31 August 2017

The is the first part of a two-part article on Ivar Tenisovich Smilga, a leading figure in the October Revolution and the Red Army who worked closely with Lenin and then with Trotsky as a member of the anti-Stalinist Left Opposition.

This week in the Russian Revolution

August 28 – September 3: Surge in support for the Bolsheviks

28 August 2017

As mass support for the Bolsheviks grows, the ruling classes are deserting Kerensky, throwing their support instead behind the tsarist general Kornilov, who is plotting to establish a counterrevolutionary dictatorship by means of a military coup.

Australian history curator Laila Ellmoos discusses 1917: The Great Strike with the WSWS

By Richard Phillips and Cheryl Crisp, 25 August 2017

“It was a complex strike, but the volume and power of these numbers was extraordinary.”

This week in the Russian Revolution

August 21-August 27: Kerensky attempts to marshal the counterrevolution

21 August 2017

With the installation of General Kornilov at the head of the army, Kerensky has turned sharply to the right. Supported by the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, he convenes the Moscow State Conference to unite all of the counterrevolutionary forces in Russia.

Seventy years since the communal Partition of South Asia

By Keith Jones, 16 August 2017

The Partition was one of the great crimes of the 20th century—a crime that has shaped, or more precisely deformed, the entire subsequent history of South Asia.

German professor promotes World War I military figures as models

By Sven Heymanns, 9 August 2017

In a guest contribution for the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Professor Ralph Rotte declares that Germany’s armed forces should look to World War I for their role models.

This week in the Russian Revolution

July 31—August 6: The nightmare in Flanders

31 July 2017

Perhaps more than any other battle in world history, the Third Battle of Ypres will endure for generations as a symbol of pointless and fratricidal barbarism. While popular moods continue to turn against the war, counterrevolution is in full swing in Russia.

From the archives of the Russian Revolution

Letter to the Provisional Government

By Leon Trotsky, 31 July 2017

This is a new translation of an open letter Trotsky addressed to the Provisional Government on the arrest of Bolshevik leaders, which took place during the crackdown that followed the July Days.

This week in the Russian Revolution

July 24—July 30: Counterrevolution rears its head

24 July 2017

Following the suppression of the July Insurrection, a “government of national safety” with unlimited repressive powers is announced in Petrograd, with the support of the bourgeois parties and the opportunist parties in the Petrograd Soviet.

From the archives of the Russian Revolution

Trying Days

By Leon Trotsky, 24 July 2017

This is a new translation of an article by Leon Trotsky, published in Vperiod (Forward), Number 6, on July 22 (9 O.S.), 1917. Trotsky wrote this article after the July Days and before his arrest by the Provisional Government.

Fifty years since the Detroit rebellion

Part three: Liberal promises and capitalist reality in “New Detroit”

By Barry Grey, 24 July 2017

The WSWS is posting a three-part series originally published in July of 1987 under the title “Twenty years since the Detroit rebellion.” This is the third and final part. Part one was published on July 21, part two on July 22.

Fifty years since the Detroit rebellion

Part two: The explosion

By Barry Grey, 22 July 2017

The WSWS is posting a three-part series originally published in July of 1987 under the title “Twenty years since the Detroit rebellion.” This is the second part. Part one was published on July 21.

Fifty years since the Detroit rebellion

Part one: An uprising of the oppressed

By Barry Grey, 21 July 2017

The WSWS is posting a three-part series originally published in July of 1987 under the title “Twenty years since the Detroit rebellion.”

Albert Einstein’s life, or parts of it, in the first season of National Geographic’s Genius

By Bryan Dyne, 20 July 2017

The 10-episode season depicts the life of one of the most renowned scientists in world history without paying much attention to the science he developed.

German military historian Sönke Neitzel evokes the traditions of Hitler’s Wehrmacht

By Christoph Vandreier, 19 July 2017

In an interview with Der Spiegel, Neitzel insists that Germany’s Armed Forces must stand in the tradition of Hitler’s Wehrmacht because they must be an “instrument of battle.”

This week in the Russian Revolution

July 17–23: The “July Days,” Insurrection and counterrevolution in Petrograd

17 July 2017

The insurrection in Petrograd known as the “July Days” reaches high tide and then recedes before the combined efforts of the Provisional Government and the parties that currently lead the Soviet.

This week in the Russian Revolution

July 10–July 16: The beginning of the “July Days” in Petrograd

10 July 2017

Despite the warnings by Bolshevik leaders that a premature insurrection would be isolated and defeated, hundreds of thousands of workers decide to take matters into their own hands. This is the beginning of the “July Days.”

This week in the Russian Revolution

July 3-9: Lenin warns against premature insurrection

3 July 2017

Kerensky’s military offensive is developing into a terrible massacre of Russian soldiers. In the old tsarist capital, workers and soldiers are angry. In the Bolshevik Party’s middle and lower ranks, including in the Bolshevik Military Organization, many are demanding an immediate insurrection.

150 years of Canadian Confederation: Myth and reality

By Keith Jones, 1 July 2017

The representation of Canada as a progressive antipode to the rapacious dollar republic to the south has long been an important part of the ideological arsenal of the ruling class.